Monday, 5 March 2018

Glunz Model 0

Glunz Model 0
When this small wooden-bodied folding camera arrived in the post, a speculative purchase, there was almost nothing on the camera to identify it, save a small badge inside the body. This has a monogram reading G&S Kamerawerk Hannover-List. This was enough information to turn up some references to Glunz & Sohn Kamerawerk, but there is very little online about the company - the Glunz page on Camera-Wiki is very sparse for example (and I created the Glunz Mod. 0 page on Camera-Wiki myself, and it has only had three minor edits in the five years since). On Collection-Appareils I found a Glunz & Sohn Model 0 camera which looked very much like my version, although not identical - but also more recent, from the 1930s. The serial numbers on the lens and shutter belonging to my camera date them to c.1919. The Model 0 name appears to be a back formation from Glunz's 9x12cm Model 1, presumably produced first, and possibly not named Model 1 when first produced - or it could indicate Glunz's most basic model camera.

Glunz Model 0
The camera is very simply constructed with very few extraneous features. There's no handle on the body, as most folding plate cameras of this type would ordinarily possess. The bellows are single extension only, and there's only a rotating brilliant finder for framing - many other cameras would also have a frame finder; the brilliant finder doesn't have a spirit level attached either. It does however have rise and cross front movements: these seem pretty standard on these pre-war cameras, the movements seen as essential - perhaps converging verticals were distressing to the photographers of the day. The front cross movement is just by friction, while the rise has a standard worm screw. Focus is by ground glass screen, using rack and pinion, with a lock by pushing in the focus knob. The camera also has a scale on the folding bed, which also has an infinity lock, a small lever which pushes in to release the lens standard to advance it further on its rails. There are tripod sockets for vertical and horizontal images.

Glunz Model 0
The Mod. 0's body is made from wood with the drop bed (and lens standard) in aluminium. The oddity of the camera is that despite being made very simply, cheaply, and with very few features, it has what would have been a top of the range lens and shutter combination: a 10.5cm f4.5 Tessar lens (fast for its time) in a dial-set Compur shutter. These were of course bought-in stock items, but for a camera this simple, one might expect a cheaper triplet lens in a Gauthier or other shutter - such as seen on the catalogue pages reproduced on Collection-Appareils. That the shutter function dial has ZDM (Zeit, Dauer, Moment) strongly suggests that this particular model of the camera was destined for the German home market, rather than using TBI (Time, Bulb, Instant) for export. The presence of the Tessar lens in the Compur shutter may mean that the camera's model number may in fact not be the Model 0; it's possible that with the same body, the Glunz's model numbers may actually indicate the lens/shutter options. However, there isn't enough information online to be sure that this may in fact be the case.

6.5x9cm plateholders from A.P. Paris
The Model 0 takes very different plateholders from other 6.5x9cm plate cameras I've used. The camera came with six plateholders, all stamped with A.P. Paris, but of two different designs - three have fabric tabs which appear to be there to make removing the plateholders from the camera easier (other plateholders sometimes have a small indent at the bottom for this). The plate holders are of a block-edge type, without the single or double lip around the holders that seems to be far more common. This means that none of the many other plateholders I have can be used with the camera, nor can I use the Rada rollfilm back with the Model 0. The ground glass screen itself is made from a plateholder; whether this was original is open to question, but the conversion was done very skillfully, unlike some I have seen. This is of the same design as the holders with the fabric tabs, although the tab here is cut off level with the metal (the stamp A.P. Paris is in a different place, compared to the proper plateholders though). The body has a small locking lever to secure the plateholder once inserted for removing the darkslide.

Glunz Model 0 ground glass screen
The ground glass screen does not have a hood attached (and doesn't look like it ever had one); I generally don't use a dark cloth when shooting old plate cameras hand-held, and the lack of a hood does make it difficult to see an image of any clarity on the screen. Apart from a few longer exposures, I shot most of the plates shown on this post hand-held. I shot a few plates when I first acquired the camera, but then didn't really use the camera until more recently - partly due to the lack of plateholders.

Glunz Mod. 0 with Ilford HP3 plate - test exposure
Having just six of these has been limiting in terms of taking the camera out to shoot - unless one is prepared to take a dark bag and spare plates. I've also used paper and sheet film with the camera, but in an equally limiting fashion, having just one 6.5x9cm film sheath.

Glunz Mod. 0 with Harman Direct Positive Paper
Glunz Mod. 0 with Ilford HPS glass plate 
In practice, the Glunz Model 0's construction makes for a light plate camera, partly thanks to its lack of features, which would all add weight, and only having six holders to carry around with it does not add much. The camera doesn't look like it was used very much during its earlier life. The dial-set Compur shutter is in excellent condition, and fires pretty accurately at all speeds, even the slower ones. The Tessar lens is what one would expect, as a pre-war lens, it's not coated but the results are perfectly acceptable. One problem with the camera is that the two arms holding the folding bed do not securely lock out once the camera is opened- these aren't sprung like they are on other cameras I have, and it's very easy to knock the folding bed back, putting the lens standard out of true with the film plane. Although the camera has single extension bellows, in practice its possible to rack the lens standard out to the very edge of the lens board, enabling close focus to around 40cm - as with the HP3 plate shot of the raspberry canes below.

Apart from the shot on Agfapan APX 100 and that on Harman Direct Positive Paper, the rest of the photographs on this post shot with the Glunz Model 0 are on glass plates from the 1950s and 1960s. Most of the Ilford plates have aged fairly well (some of the Kodak plates less so); the Special Lantern plates would have been very slow originally, but weren't intended for 'pictorial contrast', instead these were designed for making lantern slides by contact - or just conceivably via and enlarger - so have a very slow blue-sensitive emulsion (generally, the slower the emulsion speed, the less it is affected by age). However, I also shot some Ilford HPS plates, which came from a box with a leaflet dated to 1952; HPS was the fastest emulsion available at the time - 400 ASA (pre-1960, so 800 by today's standards) and these plates came out well, rating them well below box speed to compensate for age.

Glunz Model 0 with Ilford Special Lantern Plate
Glunz Model 0 with Kodak P1600 Panchro-Royal glass plate
Glunz Model 0 with Ilford Special Lantern Plate
Glunz Model 0 with Ilford HP3 glass plate
Glunz Model 0 with Ilford HPS glass plate
Glunz Model 0 with Agfapan APX100 sheet film
Sources/further reading:
Glunz & Sohn on Camera-Wiki
Glunz Model 0 on Camera-Wiki
On Collection Appareils (French)

Wednesday, 28 February 2018

Seven Years On

As February marks the month when I began writing this blog seven years ago, not every year, but periodically, it seems like a good opportunity to take stock of the state of film-based photography. As ever, I haven't written as much as I would have otherwise liked to do. In recent weeks I have updated some of my older camera posts with additional images, especially from the cameras which I've used a good deal over the past few years, namely the Kodak Retina IIa and the Zodel Baldalux, as well as the Agfa Optima Sensor, as I've used a greater variety of films with them. I am, as ever, shooting some odd, obscure and sometimes difficult cameras, as well as current and discontinued films, and continue to observe various 'camera days', which form the majority of this blog's content.

After the closure of Silverprint in London, my 'regular' shop became West End Cameras; they closed their physical store in central London last Autumn: they do still trade online, but I found it useful as a shop to drop in for films and chemicals I knew they'd have, and also to try new things out on occasion too when serendipity provided them (West End Cameras introduced me to Adox Silvermax, for example). There remains KVJ Fairdeal, the cheapest place for Ilford films I know of, and Process Supplies UK (there's also Mr Cad and - a relative newcomer - Parallax Photographic neither of which I've personally used). There are other shops which sell film in London, but often at something of a premium: the Photographers' Gallery's bookshop has a very good range of films (as well as being an excellent bookshop; their website only shows a limited range of what they actually have in the shop), but not at competitive prices.

In terms of available films, the announcement last week of the reintroduction of Kodak T-Max P3200 was received with slightly mixed responses. For the fastest black and white emulsions available, I've tended to prefer Ilford Delta 3200, which, importantly, is also available in medium format, but no doubt I'll try T-Max P3200 again. Although their colour transparency film is still yet to appear, the production of Ferrania P30 Alpha looks to have increased in volume, although quantities are still limited: their last update entertains the possibility that P30 Alpha may soon be available in medium format (120) rolls and 127 format is also mentioned. Of new films I have yet to try, Silberra have an ambitious range of films in different stages of development, including a new, fast (for its type) orthochromatic film; with some of the various other 'new' films appearing, it is not always clear if the films are entirely new emulsions, or repackaged emulsions from some of the remaining manufacturers - films like Kosmo Foto (Foma), and Fotoimpex's CHM 100 and 400 films (Kentmere/APX/RPX) - while its notable that others - such as Bergger Pancro 400 - are distinct products. It did feel like 2017 was a positive year for film photography - Emulsive wrote about all the announcements for new film stocks, and had to keep updating the post to keep the content current.

Wednesday, 14 February 2018

Minolta Weathermatic-A

Minolta Weathermatic-A
Some cameras I've bought purely on a whim. The Minolta Weathermatic-A was one such camera: a waterproof, underwater 110 format camera, listed on a well-known auction site for a mere £5 plus postage - which gained no other bids. When the camera arrived, my initial impression was that it's surprisingly large, large for 110 format: the camera body is 190mm long, around 50mm at its thickest where the knobs and levers are, and 70mm deep. The Weathermatic-A dates from 1980 and Minolta's decision to bring out a waterproof camera for the 110 format probably reflects the growing popularity of scuba diving and other such sports. The camera is waterproof to 5 meters, and as well as its large controls, designed to be easy to use with gloves, there is also an intergral padded wriststrap which can be attached to either right or left side of the camera. The yellow and black colour scheme also denotes its design relationship to diving gear, and a few other companies made waterproof cameras with yellow and black colour schemes around the same time period in the late 1970s and through the 1980s, notably the Motormarine and the Aquamatic. The Weathermatic-A wasn't followed by a Weathermatic-B, but the concept of an amateur underwater camera seems to have been sound enough for Minolta to follow it with the 35mm Minolta Weathermatic 35 DL (there was also a Minolta Weathermatic Vectis Zoom for the APS format in the 1990s). Other accessories for the Weathermatic-A included a sports finder, plastic case and belt strap.

Minolta Weathermatic-A, top view with aperture and focus controls
The controls are large and simple to use. On the top of the camera are two knobs, one for focus, with a series of symbols to indicate distance, the other, which changes the aperture, has two weather symbols, for sun and cloud and flash. Next to this is the shutter button, a large rubberised pad - not dissimilar to Agfa's orange buttons in their Sensor range. On the underside of the camera is the frame advance lever. The lens is a f3.5 26mm Rokkor, with a close focus distance of 0.9m or 3ft; the shutter is set at 1/200th only.

Minolta Weathermatic-A rear view
The viewfinder indicates the focus setting with a red transparent tab that moves over the same series of distance symbols. There is also a simple parallax indication, and a red underexposure warning. This is powered by a single AA battery, used for both metering and the built-in flash. However the shutter itself is entirely mechanical: I first used the camera without a battery, shooting in daylight with the aperture selector set to 'cloudy'. The Weathermatic-A is sometimes described online as having three aperture settings, but this is more nuanced: the aperture knob can be set to intermediate positions between the two aperture settings, for full sun or cloud, while the flash setting changes the aperture with the focus setting - as the focus is set closer, the aperture reduces.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with strap information for focus settings
Embossed on the underside of the camera body is a numerical key for the distance symbols in both feet and metres, and "actual flash-range on land"; these are also printed on both sides of the strap toggle. The flash distances are given for 100 and 400 ASA film: the camera has the film speed pin to sense either low or high cartridges. On top of the camera, behind the focus and aperture knobs, there's a raised triangle. This might just be a design quirk, but it seems to indicate the film plane: it's in the right place, directly behind the lens, and above the window which shows the cartridge and the frame number on the backing paper of the film.

Minolta Weathermatic-A opened for loading
The camera back has two locks for its rear seal, these have clips that need to be lifted before each lock can be rotated in opposite directions. Inside this, both film and battery can be loaded separately.
For my first tests with the Weathermatic-A, I used 110 cartridges reloaded with double-perforated 16mm Kodak Photo Instrumentation film. The Weathermatic-A is a typical 110 camera in that it needs perforations to function: the shutter release does not work unless the internal pin connects to a perforation. However, unlike some other 110 cameras I've used, the Weathermatic-A's single-stroke lever will advance the film a whole frame - or four standard 16mm perforations - without snagging, with just an odd, occasional overlap.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with reloaded Kodak Photo Instrumentation film
Although I hardly ever use flash, I did test the camera's built in flash unit, seen in the image below, which worked perfectly adequately. There's a small 'flash-ready' LED that shows up on the rear of the camera body to show when the flash is fully charged.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with reloaded Kodak Photo Instrumentation film
When I made my first tests, I didn't use it underwater, but I did take the camera out on a very rainy day with impunity; to test it was still waterproof, I did submerge the camera in a sink full of water, checking for any air bubbles coming from the body to indicate a leak before using it underwater.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with reloaded Kodak Photo Instrumentation film
After the first tests made with reloaded 110 cartridges, I later shot a roll of Lomography Orca film while swimming in the sea, testing the camera's waterproof qualities. I also used the Lomography Tiger colour negative film on the same occasion, but only after getting out of the water. I did try a couple of shots underwater, but these were very uninteresting shots of feet in the mud (located at the end of the Thames estuary as the coastline turns, Southend and Shoeburyness, where I shot these films, are very well known for their mud, from the silt carried down the river); in one shot further down this post, I attempted to shoot camera with its lens half submerged.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with Lomography Orca film
As with other 110 cameras, the negative size is significantly larger than the 110 film's pre-exposed mask, as can be seen in both colour and black and white images: one benefit of using reloaded cartridges is to take advantage of the whole negative area, which is admittedly compromised by the perforations themselves. However, it would be possible to crop the frame to its full width for a slightly elongated rectangular image inside the perforations.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with Lomography Tiger film
In the photographs using the reloaded cartridges, the frame has a distinct shape with three notches along the top of the frame. At the top left of many frames, there's a mark which appears to be some form of light leak (outside of the 110 printed frames), but its regularity makes it seem like a deliberate marking, although its hard to see what the purpose might be.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with reloaded Kodak Photo Instrumentation film
I subsequently used the Weathermatic-A while kayaking, taking a number of films, both cartridges of reloaded Photo Instrumentation film and Lomography Orca, with spare films in a resealable plastic bag to keep them dry. Paddling with the camera strapped to one wrist was not practical, but it could be attached to the life jacket I was wearing in such a way that I could lift it to my eye to shoot while on the river (as I avoided capsizing on this excursion, I didn't actually use the camera in the water here).

Minolta Weathermatic-A with Lomography Orca film
In a number of frames, some curious light spots appear in the image area. My first thoughts was that these were caused by water on the lens housing, with the possibility that small droplets might have created this effect by reflecting sunlight into he camera. However, this didn't seem a satisfactory explanation, as some were in shots taken on dry land. When I got the colour negative film developed, there were spots again, but of an orange-red colour. Some research online showed that these marks are caused by minute holes in the backing paper - and the positioning of these spots does seem to match up with the hole in the back of the cartridge in which the frame numbers appear, rather than across the whole film. Looking back at 110 shots from other cameras did show up these marks on occasion, but rarely - which I think must be determined by the brightness of the light when shooting: it's much less likely to happen when photographing inside and on overcast days as I had done with the Agfa Optima Pocket Sensor for example. Reusing the cartridges no doubt also causes wear on the backing paper which possibly increases the likelihood of this occurring, but this effect also shows in the new Orca films. Taping over the cartridge window would be one solution, although this means not being able to see how many frame have been shot.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with Lomography Tiger film
Other than light leaks from the backing paper, the most common problem I found when shooting the Weathermatic-A was down to user error: the focus knob has a click stop at the 'whole person' icon. This is set to 3.5m or 11ft; as this is the only click stop on the focus knob and is its 'centered' position. I made the mistake of assuming that this might be a hyperfocal distance setting for the 'full sun' aperture at least, which it isn't - resulting in quite a few slightly-out-of-focus frames. Although I've only shot a very limited range of emulsions with the camera, I think the Photo Instrumentation film provides the best results so far; although I don't see it being used regularly, as a camera to take anywhere wet, the Minolta Weathermatic-A works very well within its intended remit.

Minolta Weathermatic-A with Lomography Orca film
Minolta Weathermatic-A with Lomography Tiger film
Minolta Weathermatic-A with reloaded Kodak Photo Instrumentation film
Sources/further reading
Minolta Weathermatic-A on Camera-Wiki
Weathermatic-A on
Collection-Appareils page on the Weathermatic-A
Weathermatic-A on Forgotten Charm
Minolta Weathermatic-A manual on Butkus

Wednesday, 31 January 2018

127 Day January 2018

Baby Box Tengor with Ilford HP5 Plus
I shot just one roll of film in the Baby Box Tengor for last weekend's 127 Day. The camera still had the yellow filter taped inside the body from last Summer's 127 Day, which I left in place, although given the weather conditions on the day, the film might have benefitted from its removal. I used Ilford HP5 Plus cut down from medium format, and rolled with some old Kodak 127 paper. A number of the frames suffered from light leaks at the sides, which I think were due as much to the film not being sufficiently tightly rolled with the backing paper than any problems with the Baby Box Tengor. In development, I gave the film a one-stop push to compensate for the yellow filter and overcast lighting.

Wednesday, 24 January 2018

'Documents' Group Show

I am showing two small prints in the Documents group exhibition opening in London this Friday, made using traditional photographic processes, falling within the remit of this blog, as does some of the other work in the show.

Private View: 26th January 7-9pm, exhibition continues 27th-28th January, 12-5pm
Lumen Studios, The Crypt, St John, 200 Cambridge Heath Road, Bethnal Green, London E2 9PA

From the press release:
Contemporary art and also literature have a predilection for documents of all sorts: photographic records, archives, official pieces of paper. Documents provide information but also trigger a poetics of cool memories as well as a form of fiction. This group show curated by Melanie King, Félicie Kertudo and Laura Vallés reflects on the tensions between the representable and the un-representable, celebrates the artifice of image-making, and explores how environments shape and are shaped by inhabitants and events. It also emerges from the RCA’s homonymous research group and considers works from disciplines outside of art, such as ethnography and urbanism. The document is non subjective or expressive, and yet it does not succeed in being objective either. It is in the sense of an objective fiction that artists endeavour to expand, discuss and practice a poetics of the document that call into question received ideas, and hopefully produce new ones.
Main image: Armelle Skatulski

Sunday, 24 December 2017

FP4 Half-Frame Diary

Ilford FP4, develop before date January 1991
A few months ago, I was given a roll of Ilford FP4 with a 'process before' date of Jan 91; this roll predates the introduction of the 'Plus' version of FP4 from 1990. The film itself was probably made in 1988-89, given 24 months or so between manufacture and 'expiry'. Looking for a reason to use the film, the announcement of the return of the #FP4Party for December provided the excuse if one was needed; last year, this was held three months in a row, although I only shot the old version of FP4 on one of the designated months in sheet film from the 1970s with the Butcher's Cameo.

Ilford FP4, develop before date January 1991
Inside the box, the plastic tub that the film was in has a blue top: Ilford films used to have colour co-ordinated tops (I mostly remember the red XP2 tops from the late 1990s to early 2000s, as this was the film I probably would have shot most). The metal film canister itself has easy-to-remove lid (making it easier to re-use), and the developing information is printed on a separate leaflet rather than inside the box.

I chose the Belomo Agat 18K; as a half-frame camera, I could get twice the number of shots (72) with it. This gave me the idea to shoot the film throughout the week - ten shots a day - like a diary of sorts (the idea of a half-frame diary dates back to when I was a student, learning about the 35mm half-frame format from a photography tutor, Mick Williamson who used an Olympus Pen for his photo-diary; later, I found an Olympus Pen EE3 and used this for a number of years, with a similar idea, although without any strict rigour). To compensate for age, I exposed the roll at EI 64, and also developed it as if rated 200, giving it an effective 2/3-stop push. Development was with RO9 One Shot, diluted 1+50 for 20 minutes at 20ºC. The results appear to show I was a little optimistic about how well this particular roll had lasted - the negatives were mostly very thin and grainy - and would no doubt have been better exposed at 25 (there were also a number of horizontal marks, as seen in the second image below, where the emulsion seemed to have failed to react to the exposure, showing up every few frames, but fading away after the first dozen or so). During 'shoot week', a combination of short daylight hours and very overcast weather conditions proved challenging when shooting the film with available light when rated 64, and many of the photographs were taken with the lens wide open at f2.8, and show up my guess focussing to be not always as accurate as I might have liked. I did attempt to use flash for a few shots - such as the last frame on Tuesday below, but the camera did not consistently trip the flash, leading to a number of blank frames. Towards the end of the week, there was some sunnier weather, then, almost unexpectedly, the final day of shoot week coincided with the first decent snowfall in southern England for a few years, which providing a more interesting end to the project.








In addition to the roll of 35mm FP4, the shoot week happened to with the December 127 Day on the 7th; having cut down some FP4 Plus to use with my Baby Ikonta, I had a number of 'short ends' of film cut down to 127 width - as the length of 120 film is longer than 127, cutting down a roll of medium format film, one ends up with a short length of film leftover. This was enough for up to six shots in 3x4 negative size. I used a few of these short rolls of FP4 Plus on the final day of the shoot week.

Baby Ikonta with Ilford FP4 Plus
Baby Ikonta with Ilford FP4 Plus
Baby Ikonta with Ilford FP4 Plus
Baby Ikonta with Ilford FP4 Plus
Finally, on the last day of shoot week, I also shot a roll of 16mm film with the Mamiya 16 Automatic, an off-cut from cutting down the width of FP4 from medium format - the first image below I scanned as a diptych to include the film name in the rebate.

Mamiya 16 Automatic with Ilford FP4 Plus
Mamiya 16 Automatic with Ilford FP4 Plus
Mamiya 16 Automatic with Ilford FP4 Plus
Mamiya 16 Automatic with Ilford FP4 Plus