Tuesday, 18 October 2016

World Toy Camera Day 2016

For this year's World Toy Camera Day last weekend, I used my V. P. Twin, feeling as this would qualify for being a 'toy camera', being made of plastic with no user controls other than the shutter lever itself. I shot a roll of HP5 Plus cut and rolled with 127 backing paper. As the morning was grey and overcast I decided to push the film one stop to compensate for not being able to change any settings on the camera, which worked as well as could be expected, although a number of frames were quite underexposed. There were problems with lens flares, light leaks and film flatness, which I'd noted in writing about the V. P. Twin; I had intended to make an additional tension spring to balance the pressure on the film inside the camera, but in the event I didn't find the time. I did also shoot a roll of Fomapan 200, but the roll suffered rather more from light leaks as a result of the camera back not being fully closed, which I only realised most of the way through the sixteen shots, so I've only posted images from shot on HP5 Plus here.

Friday, 23 September 2016

Butcher's "Cameo"

The "Cameo"
Sometimes I acquire cameras almost by accident. After using the Ensign Folding Klito earlier in the year, I bought another quarter-plate format folding camera as it came with a full complement of a dozen plate holders, and probably would have paid around the same amount for the plate holders on their own. However, these metal holders were not compatible with the Klito: the Klito holders have a single 'lip' on the left and right edges and none at the bottom. These particular holders in comparison have a double lip at both sides with a single lip at the bottom edge which meant that they were not interchangeable. It's an issue not uncommon for early plate cameras, as many manufacturers had their own propriety designs, especially it seems around the turn of the century; only later was there a degree of standardisation amongst different camera makers.

Cameo with plate holders and supplementary lens
The camera that these holders came with was a Butcher and Sons Cameo (on the camera itself is a small brass name badge with The "Cameo").  I've already written about Butcher and Sons in discussing the Midg: their cameras were made in Germany and then badged and sold by Butchers - with most likely some other elements of finishing by Butchers, notably that the Cameo has a British-made lens in a German shutter. The camera itself was almost certainly made by Hüttig, or Ica - of which Hüttig was a constituent when Ica was formed in 1909: the 'Cameo' is listed as a plate camera under the Hüttig page on Camera-Wiki, but does not appear as a 'continued model' on the Ica page, although this may just be an omission (however, the Cameo also does not appear under the comprehensive Ica cameras list on From the Focal Plane to Infinity).

Research online turned up scans of a Butcher and Sons catalogue from 1914, which was invaluable for precisely identifying the model. There are four versions of the Cameo listed: my camera corresponds to the Model O, surely a back-formed name: the others are named with Roman numerals I, II and III (the 'Uno-Cameo'); the O is a simpler, cheaper version. It does appear to be named with a capital 'O' rather than a zero, although whether anyone referred to it as a "Model-Oh" seems unlikely. To add a small amount of confusion, the Model O is divided into five variants based on lens and shutter combinations: my example is the middle of the range Model 03 (the other Cameos, although having a wider variety of sizes, lenses and shutters are not burdened with a further model name in the catalogue). The catalogue states that "The Model O "Cameo" has for fourteen years held the lead as the most serviceable, most practical, and most valuable Guinea Folding Pocket Camera on the market, and for this reason has become famous the wide world over. The 1914 pattern has been entirely remodelled, and is now as perfect as is possible to make it." As an importer of cameras from Germany, the outbreak of war that year was significant: it resulted in Butchers forming a partnership, and then an eventual merger, with Houghtons in order to stay in business.

Cameo in landscape orientation
The Cameo itself is a fairly well-constructed example of a typical plate camera of its time: leather-covered wooden body, with a metal drop bed, removable wooden back for the ground glass screen, originally with a hood, missing on my version. It has a large brilliant finder, without a spirit level. It also lacks a wire frame finder, which I prefer for shooting handheld. The bellows are single extension only, and focus eschews a rack and pinion device for the simpler expedient of using the spring clamps, as the catalogue names them, to advance the front standard along the runners. There is a focus scale with an infinity lock, but for precise focusing, this is rather more difficult as I found my hand partly occluding lens as I attempted to move the standard into place. As well as a hood, my camera was also missing the ground glass screen itself, so I made a replacement, although I used too coarse a grade of grit to see the projected images very clearly (incidentally, to make the replacement screen I had to cut down a glass plate for this, as the screen is smaller than quarter plate size). Camera movements are limited to front rise/fall and cross, like most folding plate cameras of this age. The body also has standard tripod sockets for vertical and horizontal orientation.

Beck Symmetrical lens in Lukos II shutter
The Beck Symmetrical lens has a mark for f8 as its widest opening on the scale, but the aperture opens a little wider, as shown by the pointer's position in the image above, possibly just to f7.7. It does have a chip or crack at the very edge of the front element, but this probably has a marginal effect on image quality. The lens is set in a Lukos II three-speed shutter, with 1/25, 1/50, 1/100, with T and B. The Lukos is an 'Everset' shutter, meaning that it doesn't need a separate lever to cock the shutter before firing, but the tensioning of the mechanism can be felt in initially pressing down on the release lever before it reached the firing position. According to the 1914 catalogue, Lukos shutters were specially made for Butchers - although not specified, no doubt by Ica.

Having made a new ground glass screen and submitted the camera to some general cleaning and renovation, an excuse for shooting with the Cameo came with the announcement on Emulsive of the first #FP4Party. In one of my job lots of old film and plates, I'd acquired two boxes of 8.2x10.8cm FP4 from the 1970s: with 50 sheets to a box I was happy to sacrifice a few sheets to test the camera, and having used some 4x5 inch FP4 from the same source successfully, without testing the film itself. I shot half a dozen sheets at half box speed and used developing times for modern FP4 Plus - the sheet film being the previous iteration of Ilford's FP emulsion before the 'Plus' version.

Cameo with expired Ilford FP4
Cameo with expired Ilford FP4
As well as the FP4 film, I also shot some glass plates at the same time. Thirty years older than the FP4, I shot some Ilford Soft Gradation Panchromatic plates, dated to 1946, hand held, with the result that most were underexposed given the Cameo's slow lens. The plates would have been better for and extra stop or two, but the results are still good for a seventy-year old emulsion.

Cameo with Ilford Soft Gradation Panchromatic glass plate
Without a spirit level or a wire frame finder, I had trouble keeping the camera level when shooting, and as a result, I have cropped some of the FP4 images, although with the glass plates the qualities of their distinctive edges would be lost, so I kept the scan of the whole plate, as above, despite the slanting horizons.

Cameo with No.6 supplementary lens fitted
Included with the Cameo camera was a push-on supplementary lens, with little information to identify it, marked simply 'No.6'. Fitting it to the camera showed it to be for close up and wide angle use, the former mitigating the camera's limited, single bellows extension to get closer to a subject, the latter simply facilitated by placing the front standard a little closer to the camera body. With the supplementary lens it's critical to use the ground glass screen to focus, as the focus scale on the body no longer applies; for wide-angle work, the brilliant finder shows a slightly smaller angle of view, but using the finder itself isn't especially exact, so this matters little. The two images below show the difference with and without the supplementary lens, which isn't especially dramatic.

Cameo with No.6 supplementary lens and expired Ilford FP4
Cameo with Soft Gradation Panchromatic glass plate
The difference when used for close up photographs appears more marked, with the two examples below both shot on Ilford G.30 Chromatic glass plates. In each case, the front standard of the camera was advanced as far as possible on the runners, right at the very edge of the folding bed.

Cameo with Ilford G.30 Chromatic glass plate and No.6 supplementary lens
Cameo with Ilford G.30 Chromatic glass plate
Although not used for any of the photographs in this post, the Cameo also came with two exposure meters of a very specific kind. The two wallet-like items are actinometers and work by timing how long a piece of sensitised paper takes to darken to a specific tint; that time is then applied to the calculator, which is calibrated to emulsion speed in Hurter and Driffield numbers. Possibly around a hundred years old, I found that the sensitised paper still darkened when exposed to light; some of my old glass plates are rated in H&D numbers, but most of the photographs in this post were shot with the 'sunny 16' rule rather than metered (I used an SLR to meter the close up shots and overexposed most of them).

Imperial Exposure Meter showing sensitised paper strip and sliding calculator
A century ago, the Cameo would have given quite adequate results on glass negatives for photographs that would have mostly been printed by contact. The Beck Symmetrical lens is sharp in the middle, but definition falls off towards the edges at wider apertures, and for some of the reasons I've mentioned, the Cameo isn't the easiest plate camera I've used: contemporary to my camera, more expensive models in the range with better, faster lenses, double extension bellows and rack and pinion focussing would be more desirable - if one were to make an informed purchase.

Butcher's Cameo sample image with Ilford FP4
Butcher's Cameo sample image with Soft Gradation Panchromatic glass plate
Butcher's Cameo sample image with supplementary lens and Soft Gradation Panchromatic glass plate

Sources/further reading:
There's perhaps surprisingly little in depth information about the Cameo online, although presumably sold in tens or hundreds of thousands, this may be simply that it's not considered sufficiently interesting in any way.
1914 Butcher Catalogue
'Pocket' Cameos on Historic Camera
Early Cameo model on The Living Image

Wednesday, 27 July 2016

The V. P. Twin

V. P. Twin with soft case
Having written a moderately comprehensive post about the Vest Pocket Kodak, I wanted to write a post about the other camera that I used on this month's 127 Day, the V. P. Twin. About this, there is rather less to say, but millions of these were made, and as an extremely cheap snapshot camera, the V. P. Twin may well have been the introduction to photography for a great many people, particularly in the UK where it was produced. How well it may have travelled is an unknown - on Collections Appareils it's listed as being rare in France, but a number are always available on a well-known auction site, and I have on occasion seen V. P. Twins in antique or junk shops.

V. P. Twin with wire framefinder folded out for use
The name derives from the initials for Vest Pocket, an alternate name for 127 rollfilm, and that the camera uses a frame size of 3x4cm, which means that two red windows are needed to advance the film, the numbers on the paper backing appearing twice, once in each window, to provide sixteen photographs on a roll.  The camera is made from plastic: when first produced in the mid-1930s, this was Bakelite in a number of different coloured variants; my version of the camera dates from after the war, clearly identified by the metal faceplate around the lens. Although many websites don't differentiate, there are some suggestions that, post-war, a different plastic other than bakelite was used. With my example, the plastic appears very much like Bakelite, hard and a somewhat brittle, as evidenced by a small chip broken off inside, but this is not conclusive.

V. P. Twin with wire framefinder
The camera has a fixed-focus meniscus lens of f12.5 (the instructions recommend a subject distance of eight to ten feet) and a rotary-type shutter that fires when the lever is tripped in either direction. The 1950s version of the V. P. Twin has a metal faceplate with the phrase "BLOOMED "BOLCO" LENS": BOLCo stood for British Optical Company; bloomed appears to mean that the lens was coated, which, judging from the colour of the reflections, may well be the case, although it might seem an unnecessary refinement given how basic the lens is. To compose a shot, there is a single metal frame which hinges up from the top of the camera. The advance knob provides a loud ratchet sound, making operation of the camera less than discreet given how quiet the shutter is.

V. P. Twin opened for loading
Although the instruction manual tells the user to twist a coin between the two projections at the top of the camera, and the letters "INSERT COIN AND TWIST" are embossed on the camera itself, I've found it easy enough to open using my fingers in the slot. The V. P. Twin is famous for having been sold in three individual parts, each for 6d, which, in total, converts to 7.5 pence in new money, surely one of the cheapest cameras ever made (according to one online calculator I've used, this would be the equivalent of £3.73 at 2016 prices). Although this sounds apocryphal, the onetwoseven site confirms the story. In the 1950s, the V. P. Twin was selling for 7/6, or 37.5 pence, or £6.32 at 2016 prices. For a simple camera, the instruction leaflet is very comprehensive; my camera came with both instruction leaflet and soft case.

V. P. Twin leaflet front
V. P. Twin leaflet back
I first shot a short roll of Ilford HP5 Plus cut down from medium format, and the results were very much what I imagined them to be: vignetting, distortion and so on from the meniscus lens. There were also some scratches, which may have been from the process of slitting the film to 127 size. The shutter looks and sounds very slow, but it's probably around 1/30th; some shots appear to show a small amount of camera shake, but given how little in the frame is truly sharp, it matters less than this might. As I've written about other simple cameras, the use of modern fast emulsion allows a greater flexibility in the situations in which the camera may be used. The instructions state that:
The V. P. Twin is strictly a snapshot camera. The same rules which govern Snapshot Photography with any other camera should be followed. The subject should be in broad, open sunlight, but the camera must not. The sun should be behind your back or over your shoulder.
V. P. Twin test roll with Ilford HP5 Plus
Given the typical film speeds of the 1930s when the film was first produced this advice would have been well heeded; today, being able to use a 400 ISO film with both lower contrast and good latitude means being able to ignore that stricture: the photograph above was taken on an overcast day, with plenty of shade from a nearby tree. Shooting longer rolls of film for the 127 Day did show some issues with film flatness which appeared to increase over the length of a roll; the camera has one flat tension spring at one end of the camera inside, as seen in one of the images above, which does not seem sufficient to keep the film tight as the amount on the take-up side builds up. This lack of flatness shows up as distortion, especially clear in straight lines, as shown in the second-to-last image on this post.

Maurice Fisher, on the Photographic Memorabilia website nicely sums up using the V. P. Twin as his first camera, replete with camera shake and framing errors. Accurate framing is very difficult to achieve; it's probably best to simply ensure whatever motif being photographed is simply centred. Camera shake with the V. P. Twin is partly due to the camera being so small and light, but not insurmountable if the instructions are followed to hold the camera tightly against the face to steady it; I also steadied a few shots by balancing the camera on a flat surface. As a cheap, snapshot camera, I did find the V. P. Twin to have a certain charm, and the quality of the images is easily the equivalent to the toy cameras that have become popular in recent years.

V. P. Twin with Fomapan 200
V. P. Twin with Ilford Mk V
V. P. Twin with Ilford HP5 Plus
V. P. Twin with Ilford HP5 Plus

Sources/further reading:
V. P. Twin on Camera-Wiki
Great British Cameras: The V. P. Twin

My First Camera on Photographic Memorabilia
V. P. Twin on Collections Appareils in French
V. P. Twin on onetwoseven.org.uk

Tuesday, 19 July 2016

Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak

Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak
No matter how many cameras you may have, there are times when a vest pocket edition of your larger instrument will be appreciated. That's just what the Vest Pocket Kodak is- a miniature Kodak- so flat and smooth and small as to go readily into a vest pocket, so carefully made as to be capable of the highest grade of work.
Kodaks and Kodaks Supplies, 1912
Introduced in 1912, the Vest Pocket Kodak was the first camera to use a new paper-backed roll film format commonly known as Vest Pocket film - with 'vest' as in the American term for waistcoat - with this film later being denominated by Kodak as 127. The camera takes images nominally 4x6cm in size (the negatives from my camera measure 44x66mm), with eight exposures on a roll of film, and the catalogue quoted above emphasises the ability of achieving postcard-sized enlargements from the negatives at a time most photographs would have been contact printed. The camera itself is very compact (120mm high, 64mm wide and 24mm depth when closed), and Kodak's catalogues illustrate this by showing the camera side-on captioned actual size on the page.

Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak
It opens like a flash, to a fixed focus, and instantly is ready for service. And then, just a slight pressure of the shutter release, at the upper right hand of the front standard, and your exposure is made.
Kodaks and Kodak Supplies, 1918
To operate the camera, the front standard is pulled out until the struts lock. With the shutter release located behind this standard, the shutter is prevented from being tripped while the camera is folded. Framing is by brilliant finder, also behind the front standard, which rotates through 90º for portrait or landscape shots. As with most cameras of this date, frame advance is manual, with an orange window in the centre of the back for frame numbers. The side (or top, depending on how the camera is held) of the camera removes for loading, and the film has to be firmly attached to the take up spool, and both spools slide into their respective slots with the paper backing stretched between them, not the easiest of operations compared to loading a camera where the back opens.

During its fourteen-year production run a number of changes were made to the Vest Pocket Kodak and different models improving on its original, limited specifications were made alongside the basic version. These changes help to date the cameras. Like many an early Kodak camera, the Vest Pocket Kodak has numerous patent dates: on my model there are three on the shutter, and several around the red window for patents in the USA, Britain, Canada and Australia. The last patent date is 1917; often Kodak patent dates refer to patents taken out some time before the cameras these appear on were made, and are not in themselves useful except in establishing a prior, earliest possible date. Other features are more secure in dating the Vest Pocket Kodak. In 1914, Kodak brought in Autographic film, a special feature in which a narrow window could be opened to inscribe with a stylus directly onto the backing paper: a thin tissue of cabon paper between film and the backing paper would transfer this writing to the negative rebate with development. Most Kodaks other than the cheap box cameras were provided with this feature, with the Vest Pocket Kodaks gaining the Autographic window in 1915, a year after its introduction. Kodak persisted with Autographic film until the 1930s; Mischa Konig's Kodak Classics site suggests that the feature was dropped due to the increased sensitivity of film emulsions.

Vest Pocket Kodak with Autographic door open and stylus removed from holder
My example still has the Autographic stylus, often separated and lost, which is kept slotted into the edge of the opening door. The clearest identifying feature of my camera is the finish. Initially, the Vest Pocket Kodak was simply painted black enamel on all surfaces, but the Special version with better quality lenses was finished in leather. My camera has neither: it is finished with a craquelure effect which, according to Early Photography, was introduced in 1920. More secure dating may be due to the serial number - engraved on the fold out stand for portrait orientation - but I have yet to find an online resource for VPK serial numbers.

The first Vest Pocket Kodak came with a meniscus achromat lens in Kodak's ball bearing shutter; my version has the second cheapest lens option, a Rapid Rectilinear (this lens first appears in the 1918 catalogue; in 1920 a VPK with the lens was $10.58, as against the meniscus at $9.49, reduced to $9.50 and $8.00 respectively, in 1921 when the focusing Special was introduced). The apertures are marked in U.S. stops 8, 16 and 32, equivalent to f11, f16 and f22, although the lens' maximum aperture is clearly wider than the widest stop: as with the meniscus lens, the aperture was restricted to improve definition. The stops are also marked with Portrait/Average View, Distant View and Clouds/Marine View, as a guide for the user. The fixed focus lens appears to be set at a distance appropriate to group shots: the settings around the lens imply that infinity focus is not achievable by using the largest aperture, which I did find to be the case.

Rapid Rectilinear lens in Ball Bearing shutter
The Kodak Autotime Scale greatly reduces the liability of error in exposure, as it automatically indicates the proper time and stop opening for subjects under any condition of outdoor photography. It is exceedingly simple to use. The speed indicator is merely set at the point on the scale indicating the kind of light prevailing and the diaphragm indicator at the point indicating the character of the subject.
Kodaks and Kodak Supplies, 1912
The Ball Bearing shutter has just two speeds, 1/25th and 1/50th, marked Clear and Brilliant respectively, with both B and T settings. According to the manual, if "the subject is in the shadow, or during cloudy weather it will be necessary to make a timed exposure", which shows how limited the conditions wherw it was possible to use the camera handheld with the films of the time, especially bearing in mind the caveat that "The markings are for Summer at mid-day. During Winter or for morning or afternoon use next larger aperture than indicated". The advice for using the T or B settings are to use a 'stable support'. The Vest Pocket Kodak features neither cable release socket nor tripod mount, but adaptors for these were available as accessories; there is a detailed section in the manual for timed exposures, firstly in interiors, giving guide exposures based on the number of windows, colour of the walls, and the light outside, and then a shorter section for conditions for timed exposure outside.

The first films I tested in the Vest Pocket Kodak showed some light leaks, but as these were largely from the edges of the negatives, this was possibly a result of cutting and re-rolling 120 film to 127 backing paper and spools, and perhaps not rolling these tightly enough, rather than problems with the camera itself. In the second image below, I used Ilford Delta 3200 to shoot handheld indoors, albeit close to a window, at the widest aperture, a relatively slow f11, which does seem to demonstrate how close the fixed focus is. It also shows that with modern, faster emulsions, an old camera with a slow lens becomes more flexible: when made, although equipped with a T setting for long exposures, it would have been primarily intended for taking photographs outside in sunny conditions. Faster films increase the situations that these cameras can be used in and at the same time I find that most films' latitude mitigates the effects of overexposure due to the limited shutter speeds.

Vest Pocket Kodak with Fomapan 200
Vest Pocket Kodak with Ilford Delta 3200
However, trying out some other films showed that there were more light leaks, which seemed to be getting worse, possibly due to the corners of the bellows being quite brittle and, with unfolding and folding the camera numerous times, these pinholes became more prominent, as in the image below. The leather at the corner folds of the bellows had mostly worn away to the fabric beneath. As the Vest Pocket Kodak does not open in the same way a more conventional folding camera does, it's provided with a circular door on the back which the red window sits in: this can be removed by rotating it and it provides access to the lens from the inside, probably for cleaning, but just conceivably to remove and replace it - although nothing I've read would suggest this was commonplace. However, this doesn't expose very much of the bellows from the inside, and so, to tackle the light leaks, I took the camera apart to better identify and attempt to fix them.

Vest Pocket Kodak with Ilford Delta 3200
To disassemble the camera, there are two screws on the bottom of the body that secures the section with the struts and bellows. Taking these screws out, once the top plate on the other side has been removed, as if for loading film, the whole bellows section slides out.

Vest Pocket Kodak - disassembled
I also used this opportunity to clean the lens. Two screws fix the shutter unit to the front standard of the camera, with the retaining ring on the rear of the lens securing it to the bellows with a square plate behind. The plate around the lens on the shutter is fixed with four screws - the two lower ones have sleeves - and once removed, I saw how easy it was to make the minor alteration needed to use the lens to its full aperture. The aperture lever ring (bottom left in the image below) has a small projecting stop to the left of the pointer; I simply flattened this stop so it would rotate fully (given that there is a gap to do so on the front standard) and open up the lens to f8 (or possibly f7.7, as with the Kodak Anastigmat lens that a more expensive version of the camera featured). I could see that there was a previous repair to the bellows on the inside to one corner. For my repair, as the bellows were still sound in themselves, I used acrylic ink to paint over the holes that I could see and fill the weave of the cloth.

Rapid Rectilinear lens in Ball Bearing Shutter partially disassembled
After reassembling the camera, I shot some 35mm Ilford Mark V film rolled with 127 backing paper as a test, which showed that the pinholes had been mitigated, but using the camera in bright sunlight still gave me some light leaks. As these seem to emanate from the corners of the bellows, taking the camera apart again, I ensured that I coated both the inside and outside of the corners with the acrylic ink once again, using a small torch to help to work out exactly where the light was getting in.

Vest Pocket Kodak with Ilford Mark V film
After making these repairs, I also taped over the inside of the Autographic window, and used the Vest Pocket Kodak on last week's 127 Day. There wasn't any evidence of light leaks, although I did take the precaution of keeping the camera folded between exposures. Shooting three full-length films (rather than short test lengths) in the camera demonstrated two other issues: problems with focus and film flatness. With the standard fully extended, the lens is not set to infinity: it appears to be focussed at around two metres. At the smallest aperture of f22, far distances are nearly in focus, no doubt to an acceptable amount for contact prints or small enlargements. One solution to using this fixed focus lens at wider apertures and to still be able to focus at distances would be not to extend the struts fully, difficult to achieve evenly on both sides of the camera, and pull the lens standard back by just 3-4mm by my calculations. The problems with film flatness show up in some of the straight lines being curved and distorted; there are linear pressure springs in both spool ends of the camera which could be tightened to help keep the tension on the film.

The Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak proved to be extremely popular: Camera-Wiki states that 1,750,000 were sold, making it relatively easy to find today, a century on. It also became known as the 'soldier's camera', its ubiquity in the First World War due to being compact and inconspicuous, even with the strictures placed on photography by the British Army (the German Army took a different attitude, with photography by private soldiers being encouraged to combat boredom and engender camaraderie), although most Vest Pocket Kodaks would have probably been carried by US soldiers after entering the war in 1917. The format and strut-folding design of the Vest Pocket Kodak inspired many other cameras - often better equipped - such as the Piccolette - and, in part, must have paved the way for smaller cameras and smaller film sizes, encouraging photographs to be enlarged, not contact printed. The Vest Pocket Kodak's legacy still lives on, if only just, after 104 years, in the admittedly very limited but continued production of 127 format film.

Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak with Ilford FP4 Plus
Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak with Ilford FP4 Plus
Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak with Ilford HP5 Plus
Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak with Ilford HP5 Plus

Sources/further reading:
The Vest Pocket Kodak website
Vest Pocket Kodak page on Early Photography
Vest Pocket Kodak on Camera-Wiki
Kodak Collector's Kodak Catalogues
Mischa Konig's Kodak Classics site